Cellular and Molecular Biomarkers
1. Introduction to cellular and molecular biomarkers of pollution: examples and applications in monitoring programmes.
2. Biomarkers and bioassays for endocrine disrupting environmental pollutants.
3. Techniques to measure cell and molecular biomarkers.
4. Toxicity of metallic pollutants, in relation to cellular accumulation and storage processes.
5. In vitro alternative methods in biomarker development: potential of mussel cells primary cultures for toxicity testing of environmental pollutants.
6. Generation of oxyradicals and oxidative stress in marine organisms.
7. Mechanisms of pollutant-induced peroxisome proliferation and rationale, for use as a biomarker in environmental pollution assessment.
8. Biotransformation of organic xenobiotics.
9. Lysosomal perturbations as indicators for toxically-induced cell damage.
10. Biomarkers for assessment of toxicant-caused DNA damage.
11. Challenges for use of biomarkers in environmental monitoring and risk assessment.
Practicals: Biomarkers of exposure to metals. Assessment of peroxisome proliferation. Lysosomal biomarkers. Genotoxicity assessment. Seminars: Application of biomarkers to case studies.