2. Environmental metagenomics and gene discovery
3. Genomic services for aquaculture, fisheries research, study of fish stock dynamics, agriculture, food supply, comparative physiology...
4. Genomics and environmental model organisms.
5. Marine genomics and patents.
6. Basic concepts in toxicogenomics: ecotoxicogenomics, functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, analysis of gene expression, and gene ontology.
7. Molecular mechanisms in cell toxicity: effects on gene transcription levels. Gene families with predictive capacity in toxicology: inflammation; peroxisome proliferation; mutagenesis; carcinogenesis; teratogenesis; agonists of AhR and other nuclear receptors; metal scavengers; detoxification metabolism; cytotoxicity; apoptosis; and immunosuppression…
8. How to address the lack of basic gene sequence information about the species of interest. Cloning, “expressed sequence tags” (ESTs). “Suppression subtractive hybridisation-PCR”. Gene sequencing, Genome vs transcriptome sequencing. Massively parallel sequencing techniques. Sequence/Gene annotation (Gene ontology).
9. Basic techniques for the qualitative and quantitative study of differential gene expression (effects of chemical compounds). Toxicological fingerprinting. RT-PCR, Q-RT-PCR. Northern-blot, dot-blot, in situ hybridisation. Differential display PCR. Suppression subtractive hybridisation-PCR. Microarrays (microchips) and transcriptomics
10. Toxicogenomics vs proteomics vs metabolomics. Systems biology.
11. Knock-down and transgenic technology and the gene dissection of relevant molecular pathways.
12. Practicals: Navigating through the web in search of gene/genome/metagenome data bases. Gene sequence repositories, Genome sequence repositories (NCBI, ENSEMBL, GOLD). Gene expression repositories (GEO, Arrayexpress). Pathway analysis based on Gene ontology (GoFact, KEGG pathways). Microarray data interpretation and analysis tools.